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Nov 23, 2021

We're used to dilemmas: Do I take path A or path B? But in this episode of The Mind Tools L&D Podcast, we rally against binary thinking with the 'tetralemma'.

This 3,000-year-old model for decision making has real-world applications today, and author, coach and TEDx speaker Lior Locher joins us to explain why.

Lior, Ross G and Owen discuss:

  • the difference between binary and non-binary thinking
  • examples of non-binary thinking in practice
  • applications of the tetralemma at work.

Show notes

For more on the tetralemma, see Wikipedia:

Andreas Schoetz also has a fascinating blog on the topic: 

And Lior has written about non-binary thinking at: 

In WILTW, Owen discussed the metaverse:

And he shared details from NVIDIA's keynote:

Ross discussed an episode of The Exponent podcast, where the hosts discussed the metaverse: 

Lior discussed Peter Davidson's book: The Idea of North: 

For more from Lior, see:

Lior's books The DIY Phoenix ( and Values-based ( are both available now.

Lior's TEDx talk is online at: 

For more from us, including access to our back catalogue of podcasts, visit There, you'll also find details of our award-winning performance support toolkit, our off-the-shelf e-learning, and our custom work. 

Connect with our speakers 

If you'd like to share your thoughts on this episode, connect with our speakers on Twitter: